櫬 쿬 ǽѬ #1 
     ӫѡ 1871 
    ѡ ӫѡ 20 
    ߴ ӫѡ 1 
    ԫ ӫѡ ߬߬ ., 轿߬ ., .ӫ 
    ӫԫѮ 
    ԫ[1] [ 1928.] [ 1928.]
      ẫ᡿
        ի
         ᡿ 1885 
        ߽ѡ ѽ .쿬 ᡿ߴ ҡٮ Ҽѡ — ỿߡ ,
        ԫӫ , ᡡ ỿ߿ 󽴯ߴ Կ ỿᡡ Ἷ
        ѡ Կ, ԫӫ Ὣ ԫ ỿ߿ ѡ߬ .
        ӿ ԫ Ѭ , ߫᡿ߴ.
        " ߿ѽ ߻޿὿ ߽ѻӫѡ: ԫ ߫޿ ӫѽ ,
        ԫ ӫߴ ߽ѻټ? ߻ : Ѯ ߫޿, ӫѽ ,
        ߴ ѽ Ѽ (. 9, 1–3). ᬪ ү, ԫ ߽ ߻
        Ѽ Ҫ 60 , ԫ ԫ,
        ԫ 󿽿 ѽ : ӫ޽ѡ, ߽.
        ԫ ԿѼ ԡ߿ߴ ѡ Ѯ ,
        ѻᡡ ߼ӿ ߫ ӫ޽ѡ . ū,
        ӫѽ ޿ ߫ѡѼ ӿ, ԫ 󫿼 Ҽ ١ ӿߴ
        ᬫѡ ẫ᡿, Ԭ , ӫԡ
        ӿߴ ᬫ ẫ᡿ 񡫼 ١Ѯ, ӫԡ, Ѽ.
        ūԫ, ԫ ὿ . , ԫ 񫽪ѡ ٽ
        ԫߴ ᡿ ẫ᡿. ӫ߽ ߬
        ӫѽѮ ٽ Ѽѡѡ , ѡ, ԫ,
        ᡿ ԫ ի , Ԭߴ ԫ
        ߻ԡ ѡ ի󡫮 Ѽӿ, ٮ ߿: Ὣ
        ԫ ԫ, ѽ, , Ѫ, ѡ ӿѪԿ
        ѫի񿼫 ᡿ ڿߴ. Ὣ ᬫ , ԫ
        Ԭ Ὣ ӫԿ Ѯ Ӽ ӿ,
        ԫ , ᡿ . һ Ѽӿ: Ԭ
        ߫Ӫ᡿ . Ѫ һѡ
        Ѽӿ . ὿ ԡ ѡ ߻᡿
        Ѽӿ. ѻ Կ ߻᡿ Լѡѡ ޿ ߻ޡ һ
        Ѽӿ Ѻ ݬѡ. Ѽѡ ӫ޽ ᡿
        . ԫ. ߽үڿ ᬿ Ӵ񬫼 һ
        Ѽӿ . ԫ ѽ ѡ ԫټ!"
        ߬ ի Ѽӿ
         һѡ 1885 
         ᡿ 1891 
        Ѯѽٮ ѡ 
        " һ Ѽӿ Ӵ ѡ , ԫ ѡ ٽ
        ڿߴ Ѽӿ. ѽ ԫ, ԫ ߫ԫڿ Ӵ񡫼
        ߻߬ ѡ ٽ իӫү ԼԬ: ԼԬ "3" ᬿ
        ѡ 󻫽 ԫ. ѡ իѽ ߴ
        Ӵ񡫼 ߻߬, ѻᡡ ү ,
        ẫ ӡ߬ .., իѮߴ 2 . Ѽӿ, ԫ.
        ūһ 1- . Ѽӿ 62 ѡ Ӵ񡫼 ߻߬, ѽ
        2- Ҫ 30-, 3- — 28-, 4- — 18- 5- — 15-. ԫ
        . ޫ ѡ
        Ӵ Ѽӿ, 󽿴Ѽ ᬫ ӫ ߻, ѡ
        ӫ ߽ ᡿ Ѽӿ Ӵ, ӫ߿
        ߻߻ ԫ. ӿի
        Ѽ. ٽ Ѯѽ ߡ . 񡿼
        ݬѡ 5 . ߡ󡫼 ߽, ᡫ ٽ ԫ
        Ѯ, ѽ ٽ Ѵߴ ߻ޡ ݬѡ.
        ߡ ӿ : ѻ ԫ
        Ἷ: ӫ, ޫ ӫ, 񽿡 Ѫ.
        ӫߡ޿ Ҫ ѡ ԫ ߡ, ߻, ԫ ԫ
        ѽ, һߴ ԫ ӿ; ӫӫ
        ߡѽ ԫ ѽ: Ὣ ݬѡ.
        Ὣ ߻ޡ.
              ߽. 6 . ٻ߬ ݬѡ ὿ Ѽ ӫ: ԫ
        񫽪ѡ ߽ ҼѼ? 䫽
        ߫Ӫ᡿ ӫ. 佴 ᬿ ԫ Կ߬ ӫ
        ԫ󽴽. ӫ 񡿬 ӿ
        Ҽ: Ԭ 󺴽 ߽! ūѬ ỿ
        ᡡٮ ӫ ԫѽ ѡ, Ѽ ӿ
        ѡ ώ ԼԬ: Ѽ — 4, — 4 1/2, ߼Ӵ ԫ, ԫ
        ѡ ὿ Ӫ ѻѽѮ. ټ
        ӫ޽ѡѼ ڿ Ѽӿ Ӵ.
        Ĭ ߫ ޿ ԫ, ԫ ٽ ޿ ѡѼ ޿
        ӫѽѮ. Ἷ ߫ѡ ߽󿽿 ūӫѽ Ѽ
        ߻ޡ ᡿ ѽ ѽ"
      Ҫѡ
        ߬߬ ., 俼ӫ߬ ., c.ӫ 
        ѡ 
        "ӿ һѡ ԫ ѡ, ᬪ ٽ ѡ Կ
        Ѯ. ӫѡ ٽ ᡫ ӫ ԫ
        .伿ӫ, .Ѽ. ٽ ѡ Ԭ ӫѡ
        ߽ ѽѡ ԫӿ 2- Ӵ: իԴ Ѽ
        ӫѡ ԫ ԼԬ ѡ , ԫ,
        ᬪ ߫ ѡ ߫޿: ٽ ạѡ .ӫ,
        ӿի ޫ, ӿի- ߿ . ӯ ԫ ԫ,
        ԫ ߴ ᡿ ٽ ӫ ޿
        . Ѽ ѡ, 󡫯 ڿ, Ὣ ߽Ҫ
        ԫ ӿԿ Ӵ , Ԭ ү үߴ
        ѡҪ ӿի ެ, ԫ ӫ ᡿, ߫
        "Ҭ" ѮἿ ӫ ᡿ ӿի"
        ߬߬ ., . ū, Ӭ 髺ѡ ߻ 
        ѡ 
         ᡿ 1924 
        ߴ ᡿ 3 
        " ѡ ѡ ӿ Ӭ 髺ѡ ߻
        ū Һ ӫ, ӿ Կ ԫ
        󫴬, ߽񡿮 ٽ ١ Ҽ ѡ. 񡫼
        , ߴ — ӫ߿ ạѡ ѡ : ѡ ԫ
        Ѽ ٽ, ū. Դ Ѫ ٽ ѯ
        ѽѽԿ һ , ߪߴ ӿի, ԫ ӿի
        ߴ Ѽ ޿, ԫ ԡ Ҽѡ. ޿ ߽
        ӫѡ 񡿼 ޿ ߬ ӿի, , Ҵ
        ѽѡѼ. ӿ ѡ ߽Ҫѡ ӿի 髺ѡ
        ߻"
        ߬߬ ., . ū, ѡ߬ ế 
        ѡ 
          ᬫѽ 
         ᡿ 1918 
        " ߫ ߽ ѡ Կ Ѯ , 񫽪ѡ ԼԿ
        ѽѡ ѡ ᬫѽѼ ԡү ӫế. Ѵ
        Ѽѡ, ѡ իѽ ᬫѽ ެ, ٽ
        ᡴ. ūԫ, ٽ Ԭ Ѽ߬ ެ ߼Ӵ ԫ, ԫ
        ի ѡ Ѭ ѽ, ӫ߿ ѽѡ
        ѡ ᬫѽѼ. Ԭ. ᬫ ٽ ѡ,
        Ѻ ߬ Ѯ 񽫪ѡ Ѭԫ ế
        — ԫ — ᡴ ԫ ᬫѽ ѡ߬ ӫế ѡ, ԫ
        ߫߿ߴ. ԫ ٮ Կ Ѯ. Ĭߴ ѡ
        񽫪 Ѽ ԫٮ ἴԿ ٮ-ӫԫѮ ..߬.
        ߼Ӵ ԫ, ԫ ѡ ӫế Կ ѻӫѡ Դ,
        ߻ ԫ ӫ ѡ, ߫Ѯ ӫѡ ѡ
        ᬫѽѼ Ԭ޿ߴ ޿ 8- 󬽯ѽ.
        󽴽 ѡ ߻ ѯ Ѽ ӿի߬
        ߽Ҫ, ᬫѽ.
              Ԭٽ 󫽯 Ѽ ߫ѡ ӿի񿽫 ߫
        ԫ ӫ ߫Ӫ᡿Ѽ Ѽ, ߻ ,
        󫺼 ߻ԡ ԫѡ Կ ߻ԡ ᡿ Ѯߴ
        ѡ ӫ. ѺѼ ӫ ԫ, ԫ Կ իӫޫ Ἷ
        "
        ߬߬ ., . ( ū) 
          1924 
        ߴ  3 
      Ҫѡ
        . /. /1924 
         .58–10  
        ӿ  3  
      ᬽѡ
        櫽ѵ ߫ ạѡ 
          1924 
         ᡿ 1928 
        ߴ ᡿ 6 
        " 1924 . ߴ ᬪ ӫѡѼ
        Կ Ѯ, ԫ ԫ ԯ ٽ ٽ ӫ-߽
        ӫ ڿߴ , ԫ Ὣ ߡ᡿
        ӫ߽ѡ . ԫ, ԫ 󿡫󡿬 ߬ ٽ
        ԫ Իѡ 櫽, Ҽ .諡, Ѽߴ ԫ
        ٽ ٽ. Ѽ ӫ ѻ
        ԫ"
      Ҫѡ
        ߬߬ ., . ( ū), Ӭ 髺ѡ ߻ 
        ӫԫѮ 
          1928 
        ߴ  6 
         ᡿ 1937 
        ѡ ᡿ 21 
        ߴ ᡿ 9 
        "ū Կ ӫ ٽ Իѡ 1928 , ū ٽ
        ߽ᡫ 150 ѽѬ. ū ӿѺ ߴ ѪѼ , ߼Ӵ
        ԫ, ԫ ԫ ҡ ӿѺ ٽ ᡫѡ ӿի߬ ߫ԫ
        ѡ ѡ ߫Ӫ᡿ ӿի ѡ Ѭԫ
        .ѫѡ߬. ѡߴ ӫ ... ᬫ޿ ߫ Ѻ
        ѫ񡫬ԡ ӫ 񫺡 Ѫ, 󿽫 ѡ .
              ѫի񿼫 ӫ [߽ ߼Կ ѡ
        1929. Ѻ ӫ߽ Ѯ, ԫ ٽ ӫ,
        ū], ߼Ӵ ѻ ߫ ԫӫ ᡫ ߻ Ѽ
        ѡ 󫺼 ӫ
        󫺼 ӫߴ ѡ, Ԭ , ,
        ߻, 󫺼 ѺѺѡ .
        ߽ ߻ ߻ ѡ ԫ Ѯ Կ — ߽Ѯ Ѯ
        Ѽ — ԫ ᬫ ߫ ӫ޽ѡ
        ԫ ߽Ҫѽ ߻ — ӫ.쿬, ġ ӫ޽
        ߴ ѽѬ.
              ߫ ᬿ 󡿼᡿ Կ Ѯ, ߬ ӿ ߽ ߫
        Ԭӫѡ: 2 ߡ 1 . Կ ӿ ߬
        , ߬, ѽ Ѻ ѡ Ѯ, ӫѮ
        Ѯ : : , ԫ ٽ, ӫߡҽߴ ѡѼ
        ԫ Ѫ Ѻᬫ ӫӴ ἴ.
             ԫӫ ߽. 10- .. 1930 . ߡ Խ ߽
        ӫ իӫ ѡ" Կտ" ߡ, ߫ټ
        ߽үڿ ᡿Ѽ: "١ 󫺡ٮߴ , ߻ ,
        ӫ".
              Կ : ԫ ٽ . 1934. ߿ѽ ѡټ ԫ
        Ҫѡٮ Ҽ. ߽ ѫᡡ Ὣ 񫡫߿ߴ ѡ ӫ
        ի. ӿ߽޿ߴ , ԫ .
        ߽޿ 󡿼ѽ, ҽ Ҽѽ ѡ ӵ:
        "ǽҮ, ǽҮ..." ū Կ ԫ ѡ. ġ
        Կ ߽, ӯ, . ߽ ߻ ߻ ѡ
        ԡ ԫ ѡ ի, Ҽ ԫ .
              Ѽѡ ѡ 櫽, Ѭߴ ߽տ
        Կ . Կ ߽տ ի , ӫ
        , ԫ ߫ѡ ޿ Ἣ Ҭ ߽. ٽ
        ếѽ ѡ. 1932 ӿի 18 ѽ — 1-
        . . Ѻ ٽ ᡫѡ ӫѡ .Ѽټ —
        ү ެἿ — ߫᡿ 500 ڿߴ Կ ; ԫ
        ᡫѡ ٽ ѡ ӫ߬ ߫, ԫٮ ѽ ߻Ӵѡ
        , ߽񡿮 Һ, ԫ ᡫѡ ѽᡫ
        ߫ѡԡ, Ԭ ᡫѡ. 1933 ӡ
        ݽѬӿ߬.(?) [ Ѭ] ޿ ѽѮ ߻
        髺ѡ Ѯ ٽ ԫ . Ѫ
        ӫ޽ ᬫ-ԫ ߫߿ ѽ Ἣ ӫᡫ. 1934 .
        񡿬 տ ߽Ҫڿ Կ ᡫ󿽿 ӫ߿ Կ
        髺ѡ߬ , 󫿼 󫡫 ᡴԿ, ӫ߿
        ԡ ӿ Ӫ ᡿, ԫ ߽ ѽ὿.
        ӫ߬ ߫, ի, ԫ ߻ ߽Ҫڿ
        髺ѡ߬ , ߬ Ἣ, ѽ ߻Կ
        Կ ᡿ߴ. ӿ իѡ ӿի
        Ѭԫ ӿ, ԫ Ѽ ạѡ ԫ
        տ. ѯ ѯ ԫ Ѽѡ. ߻!
        ߫᡿ Ѭ Ҭ ߽! ߻ ᡿ ѡ߬
        ѡٮ ѡ ԫ . 1934 . 13 ѡԴӴ
        ѼԽ . 󫽴 !
             1936. ū߽ ᡿ ѡ ߴ Ѭԫ ެ, Ѯ
        Ҫ߬ ế ӫѽ߬ ߫᡿Ѽ ӫ Կ
        髺ѡ, ԫ ߫᡿ 񿽫. ᡿
        ١ 11(24)/ [1936.] .
              Դ — ԫ [1936.] ٽ ߫᡿ — ԫӫ,
        ԫ 񽫪 髺ѡ߬ , ѽ Կ, ԫ
        Կ Ἣ ѡ ߽񿽿, Ѽ ڿߴ. ѻ
        ڿ [ Ѭ] үڿ: ߽ Ѫ ߴ
        ѻӴ, ߽ һ Ὣ, ߫-߻
        Ѽ: ӿի 髺ѡ ԫ ߫ ѡ. ū
        󫺼Կ ӿһ .
             ߬ ߽ ԫ — ެ — Ӵ Ѯ ếѮ, Ѯ Ҽ.
        ӫի ߬ ߫, ԫӫ ٽ ѽ .
        ߬ ߫ , ԫ ߫ ߬
        ѴѽԿ: Կ ԫ 󫺼 Ӫ.
        ѫի񿼫 . ѽ : ᬿ , ԫ
        󽿴 Ѯ? ߽ Դ , Ѽ
        ެ: Ҫ ެ ү ߫, ӿ Ѯ Ѯ, ԫ
        ԫ Դҽ ެ ߫ ߬ ߫".
        ߽񡴴 ߽ ỿ: "15/I 1937. ū ꬫ Ѯ
        ӿ ѫ὿ һ ߻ ߫᡿ [١] ӿ ѼѼ
        ԫ ߫᡿ Ҽѡ Ҽ ӿ"
        ߬߬ ., .߬ ( ū), ҽ.ԡ-ū, 4 
          1937 
        ѡ  21 
        ߴ  9 
        ѡ ӿ  "󫽯 ᵿ" 
        ѵ 쿬 2-, ὿ Ӭ 髺ѡ ٽ ԫ
        ѡԴ 1937., ӿѡ ߽ѡ ѽ 񿵿߬
        ߻ ٽ Դѽ ѡ (ӫ߬ӫ, ӫ ӫտ).
        ٽ ԫ տ ߬ ūӫ߬ Ӵ
        ӿ ǡ, ԫ, ӿ ߬, ᡫ
        ѡ . ߽ .쿬 󿡴 ԫ, ԫ
        "Ӽӫ ޿ Ѭ Ӭ ԿѬ, ԫ
        󽴽 / ߫߬ ", ӫ ԫ "߽Ѽ
        ᡫѡ, ԫ 櫬 Ѽ ߽Ҫ Ӭ
        ԫᡡ / Ѵѽ ӿ ƿի... ӫ ѡ /
        Ѵѽ 櫬 ӿߴ Ѽ, ԫ ۴
        Ѽ ߬ Կ ỿߡ ߫ѡ ỿᡡ
        ߫߬ү ԡ ߫ ߽үڿ
        ߫Ӫ᡿Ѽ (ӿߴ ߽ ԫ ỿߡ ): " .
        ެ . 񿼿 .ѽٮ, ի ...
        󫽯Ѯ ߫ѡ ѡߴ. үڿ, ҽ,
        ӿ ӿ . ߽Ҫߴ ѡ߬ ٽ ạѡ
        . Ӭ .߻ѡ߬, Ӭ ѽ , ի
        ᪬, ӿ, ӫի һѮ ԫ . ߬ ߽
        ԫ Կ, ա, . ߼Ӵ ӿ 񿵿߬
        , ѡ ٽ. ūԫ ӫ ӽ իԬ. ӫ
        Ԭԫ 󽴽 , ߫, ԫ ԫ ᡿
        Ҽѡ. ġ ߡ ի , ӿ ӿ
        ߬ߴ ߫ .Ӭ". ӫ ԫ ߽ ߽ѡ ѽ
        Ὣ Ὣ ӿѡ ỿᡡ ߽. ỿ߿
        Ѯ .쿬 ߽, ԫ ԫ
        . ᬪ ۴󿽿 ѡ, ԫ
        ߽ ᬫ տӿ ӫ, ӵ 껻
        (), ի , ߽Ҫ޿ ߬, ԫ ߻Դ
        ߴ ٽ ԫ ѽ ԫ
      Ҫѡ
        ӫ ӿ ߬߬ . 
        11 /11 /1937 
         .58–10  
        ӿ  ᡿ — ѽ 
        .쿬 ӿ Ѯ ߽ ۴ѡ Ѽ ѡ, "鿡ټ
        ӿ, үڿ ѽѬ, / ѴѽԿ Կ ,
        ӯ үڿ ӫ ߫߬ Կ, ߴ .
        ỿ ߽ү: ڿ Կ ѡѡ"
      1937 
      ѡ 15 
      ߴ 11 
      Ҽ ᬽѡ 
      ԫ ߬, ߬ ԯ 
      ߻, ѡ ӫټ 1970- ߬ᡫ, ԫ .쿬 Ҽ
      櫽 1929., իԴ ߽ѡ ѽ 1937. ߴ ԫ, ԫ
      " ԯ N1 .߬ 15 Ӵ 1937. 9.30. ߬ߴ ᬽѡٮ 櫬
      쿬 ǽѬ 1870. 161 ӿ Իѡ ԡү
      ὿ ". 1938. ߽ѽ, ԫٮ ѽ ѽ .쿬 ٽ
      Ҫѡ ѻ ѡ ߽ѡ ѽ .߬ 1930-
      10 ᬽѡ . 1958. ߬߬ ԡ ӿ, ԫ
      ѽ ᬿ ѽ .쿬
    ᵿ
       04/02/1958 
      Ѽ Կӫ ߬߬ ԡ  
      ū  ѻ߿ 1937 
    ѽ ->
      1. ӫԬ 񼿽
    䫬Ҽѡ ->
      1. . .10035. Ļ.1. .-49537.

(c) . ҽ

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