ӫ ߽ ѡ ӫ߿߬
櫼 .. (), ..-.., chri-soc@narod.ru (03/03/2018)

.ᬪ: ߽ ѡ XX . 櫼 .. (), ..-..

           ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ ߽ ӿԿ ߴ ߬ѽ ᪡ ӿԿ ѡ, ޿޿ߴ Ӭ XX Ѭ. ѡ ѽ ѡ. ᬫ ԫ ߽ ߿ ߴ ߬ԿѼټ, ߬ ѡ ӿѡߴ ẽ ԫ񿬿. ԫӫ [1], ԫӫ 񽫪ѡ ԫ , ߡᡡٮ Ἷ ừѡ ᡡ " ӿ ޿". ᡡ ҡ 1993 ., ԫڿ ѡ ߫Ӫ 36 . ѡ ( ѮѼ ). [1] ᡫ ᡿ ԫ ӿѡ ѡ ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ . ԫѮ ߴ Կ ԫ ԫ ߴ ԫѡ ѡ, ѡ ߽ ߬ᡡ ᡿.

߽ ѬԡԿ ѡ ԫ ԫ

[1] ӿߴ ߡ Ӽҽ , ԫ :

N=Nb*K/Kb. (1)

: N - ߬ ѡ ߽ ѡ;
Nb - ߫ ;
K - ߫ ߻߬ ߫;
Kb - ߫ ߻߬ , ԫ ѡ Ҫ ٽ (.. ߽ "󫮡").
Ӽҽ (1) ӫү ӻᵿ (ӿ.1). ӿ Ѭԫӫ ߻߬ , 󫺡 ߿ᵿ, Ѭԫ ߫ ߻߬ Ҫ ѯߴ. ūԫ ѽٮ ߻߫ ߼ӿ "Ҽѡѡү " ү ߫ԡѡ Ѫ ẫ Ѯѽ. Ӵ, ӿ ٻѡ ѽѡ ߽ Ѯ ߫ᡴߴ ԡѡ Ѫ Ѯѽ ẫ, .. N/Nb = K/Kb, Ԭ ߽ (1). N K (Ẽ ߻߬ ) ߽ߴ ӫټ ԫ, Kb ѡ ի ӡ ݬ߻ӿѡ ի ߻߬. ᬫ ݬ߻ӿѡ [1], ӿѼ ߻߬ ߻὿ ᡡ ᡡ Ѽӿ ѻ߿ [2]. ūѡ [1] ѡ ߽ N ߫ 104 . ѽ. +- 40% Ԭѡ ԫ ѡ
           佴 ߻ѡ ѬԡԿ ѡ ѫի񿼫, ԫ ٻ ӿ ߽:

  1. Ѻ߿ ߻߬ , .. 񫽪 ѡ ạ ԫ; ߽ߴ, ԫ ߻߫ ԫӴ ( Կ) ӿ, Ҫ ѡٮ , ԫ ӿԿ ߬ѡ ѡ;
  2. ѽ ߻߬ , .. Ẽ - 񫽪ѡ ѡ ߬ ߴ; ӫԿ󡫼 ߽ 󫺡 ߿ٮ ԿԿ߬ ӫ;
  3. ѻѺѡԿ ߻߬ .

           ߽Ѽ ߽ ѫի񿼫 ߬ ӫ. ū ѻѺѡԿ ߴ Ѭ Ӭ ߫ᡴ ӫӵ ԡѡ 񼡫Ἷ ѡ ߫һԿ. , ߻߫ 󽴯ߴ ӬἿ, , ߽ѽ, 񫽪 ѻѺѡԿ. ѡ ѻѺѡԿԿ , ԫ ӿ Ӽӫ᡿ Ӭ ߫ ߿ѼԿ߬ ޿ ("Ѭ") ᬫ-ԫ ߻Ѭ. ޿ ߬ế Ѻҽ, ߽ Ӭ ޫ ѽ. ӿ, ߽ Ѭ ѽ ԫӫ Ӵ, ԫ ԫ , ԫ ߻߬ ӴѼ Ӵ, ԫ ߽ѡ Ӽҽ (1) ӿ ᡿ѡ N. ӫӵ 񫽪 ߫ᡴߴ ټ ߻Ѭ. ߡ, ԫ ӫ ߫ԡ ѻѺѡԿү Ӭ ѽ, Ҫ ߴ ߻ ӫӵ ᪡ ߻Ѭԫ.
           , ߫ѡ ߻߫ , ӫѡٮ Ѽӿ, ߫὿ Ѻ ѻѺѡԿԿ - ߴ Ѭ ԫӫ Ӵ (. ѡ ի). ԡ߿ѽ ԫ Ѭ ۴ߡߴ Ѽ, ԫ ߻߬ , ӿիڿ ѻտ, ү ὿ ѡ ѡ տ - ѽ Ӽᵿ. ᡡ Ӵ ٴ󽴽 ԫ ԫү ߽ ѽ ѡ ߽ѡ ѽ.
           ٴߡ Ѯѽ ߫ԡѡ Ѫ ߽Ἷ ѻ߿ӫᡡ Ӵ Ӵ? ԫ ӿѡ ѽ ԡ ѻѺѡԿ󡫼 ߻߬, ԫٮ Ѽ "ẵټ ߻߬". ᬿ ߻߬, ѡ ԡ ߽ѽ 쿡 翼, ߽Ҫ : . ǽѬ߿ "Ӭ Һ: ԫӿ 濼߬-߬ ѻտ ߫߬ ӿ (1917-1991 )" [3]. Ѯ ӿѡ ᡿ ᡡ ѡἿ ߽ѡ ѽ 濼߬-߬ ѻտ. ӻ ὿ ѽ, ѡ . ǽѬ߿Ѽ, 󫽴 Ѵߴ, ԫ ԫ ߻߫ ߫ү ѻѺѡԿ. ѡ ԫ ᡡ ẵ. ߬ "Ӭ Һ" ѡ ԫ 񡫮 ѻտ, ԫ ѻѡ ԫ ѻѺѡԿԿ ߽ ѽ ( ߬ѡ ѻѺѡԿԿ ԫ Ӭ . Ҫѡ ݬ߻ӿѡԫ).
           ٴѡ 896 ѻ߿ӫᡡ ߽ ӿԿ, Ӵ 422; ԫ ߫ 47%, .. Ѯѽٮ ӫѡ " Ӵ" ߫ 53%. ӫѡ Ӵ ߫ 32%, ߻߬ ("Ѽӿ") - ԫ 18%. ԫ , ԫ ߻߫ 󽴯ߴ ѻѺѡԿټ ӬἿ, ߽ѽ Ӵ ߽ѡ N Ӽҽ (1) ߬ѡٮ Ѻҽ.
           Կ ߽үڿ ߻߫. ߡ, ԫ ߽ ߻߬ ԫ " Ӵ", ԫ ߽ ߫ Ѯ N ߽ " Ӵ", ԫ [3] ߫󽴯 53% ߽. ƫ ߽ ѡ Na ߫ N*100/53. ᬫ ԫ ߽ѡ ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ ԫ ᬫ-ԫ 񼡫, ѮѮ ѬԿӫ󬫮 ԫ ߽ ߫ Ѯ ԫ 񼡫 Ѯѽ ӫ ѡ, 󫽴 ߴ "Ѭ߫". ի ԫ. Ѽ ߽ N ߽ߴ Ӽҽ

N=(Nsb*Ks/Ksb)*(100/Proc) (2)

:
- Nsb. Ks Ksb - ߫ѡ , ի񡫼 ԫ ѡ ԫ, Ҫ Ѭԫӫ 񼡫 (ԫ ѡ Ҭ s - subset);
- Proc - 񫽴 񼡫 ӫѡ Ѽ ӫ ѡ.
           ƫ, N ạ 񼡫, Ѽ (2) ѡ ߽ ѡ.

Ѻҽ ԫ

佴 ӫѡ ӡ ݬ߻ӿѡԫ ٽ ӫ ߻޿ߴ [1] ӫἼٮ Ѭ. ū ѡ ߻߬ Ksb 󽴽ߴ ӫἼ "󫮡", .. Ѯ 񡫮 ԫ ߫. 佴 ߫ѡ Ѻҽԫ (1) ի ߻ߴ ԫ ٮ ӿ -ѻ߿ӫᡡ үڿ, ӫἼټ Ѽ ٴѡ ᡡ Ѽӿ [2], ᬫ ѡ [1] ߽ ٽ ѽѡ ӿӡ . ӫѡ Proc ߴ ү [3]. 佴 ԫ ٽ ߽үڿ 񼡫:

  1. " ѡ"
  2. " Ӵ" (ѡ տ, 󬽯 ߽ޡ, ߬ Ὣڿ);
  3. Ӵ;
  4. ѡ;
  5. ѽ Ӭ-ӿի߬ ߫ԫ Ӭ ӫ;
  6. Ὣڿ;
  7. ᬫ;
Կ, ԫ 񼡫 ѽѡ ѻѡ ӫѡ, Ӽҽ (2) 񫽪 ӿѽ ӡٮ Ѻҽ 񼡫. Ѻҽ ԫ ѡ .

- ū񼡫 ѡ,
% - 䫽 񼡫 ( [3])
Nbs (߽ ݽѼѡԫ ᡡ)
Ks (߽ ݽѼѡԫ ߻߬ )
Ksb (߽ Ҫѡ 󫮡)
Ns ( ߽ ѡ 񼡫)
N ( ߽ ѡ)
                      %       Nbs     Ks      Ksb     Ns      N
1.  ѡ	100%	31785	14255	4743	95529	95529
2. " Ӵ"	        53%	21206	11561	4017	61031	115152
3.  Ӵ	        47%	10579	2736	521	55554	118200
4. ѡ 	        37.5%	12960	8560	3070	36136	96362
4. ӫ 	        6.2%	1357	812	148	7445	120080
6. Ὣڿ	        4.3%	1107	758	178	4714	109627
7. ᬫ	        2.6%	1379	772	273	3899	149961

           , ӿ, ү ӫ ߽үڿ ẫ: Ὣ ݬ߻ӿѡ 12960 ѡ , ի񡫮 ԫ ߫Ӫ 8560 ѡ, ӿѼ Ҫ ߫Ӫߴ 3070 ѡ, ѡ ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ ѡ 36136, ѡ ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ 96362 ѽѬ.

Ҫѡ Ѻҽԫ

ӫ ѡ ᡡ Ѽ ѻ߿ӫᡡټ, ԫ Ὣ ߽ѡ [1]. ޿ իѡ ۴ߡߴ Ѯ ừѡ ѡ ߿Ѯ 2012 , ԫӫ ӫ񿽿 [1]. ߴ, ԫ ԫӡ ߴ ѡ ԫӫ Ѯ ӫ: ߫ѡ N=115152 ѽ. 118200 ѽ., ߬ ٽ ѽѡѡ ѽ ѡ "Ѭ" ѡ . ӫ ԫ, ԫ , ԫ Ӵ " Ӵ" ѡ Ѻҽ, ӿ ѻѺѡԿ󡫼 ߫ԡѡ Ѫ Կ 񼡫Ἷ. ᬿ ẫ, ѡ ߽ ѡ ᡡ ߫ 115 -119 . ѽѬ. Ѻҽ ӫ 5, 6 7 ѽٮ ӫ ѡ. 񿼫, ԫ ᡫ ѡ ټ 񫽴 (6.2%, 4.3%, 2.6%) ᡡ 񼡫, ѽ ԫ ߬ ԫ ߿ ԫ ѻѺѡԿԿ ẵ Ӭ [3]. ߫ ۴ߡѡ ߬ ᡿ѡٮ ѡ Ѻҽ ӫ 4 ("ѡ") -96321 ѽ. 񿼫, ۴ߡ Ѽ, ԫ Ἷ ѡ, ӫѡ ѡ ԫ ߫, ӫἼ 󫮡 ӿ ᬿ ߫ "󫮡" (իԴ ѮѽԿ ԫ ạ Կ), Ѻҽ ߴ ѡ ѡ Nsb. ѡ ޡԿ ԫ ߴ ѽټ - ѡ ߿ "ẵ Ӭ", ԫӫ ѡ ᮡ ӫѼԿ. ūԫ ѮѼ, Կ ԫ ߴ ѽѽټ ԫӡү "ẵү Ӭ", ѻѺѡԿ ԫӫ ߻Ѽ ԫѮ .

  1. .. 櫼. ӫ ߽ ѻ߿ӫᡡ ߽ү ɫ߿ XX . //ԡ , 3(64), ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ. ߬ 2015, . 101-106.
  2. ᡡ Կ߬ ӫ . 諼-߬. 3- . "Ѽӿ". .: ѡ, 2004.
  3. ӫ. ǽѬ߿ . Ӭ Һ: ԫӿ 濼߬-߬ ѻտ ߫߬ ӿ (1917-1991 ).- " ߬ 䫼 Կ", 2007. -968 .